Development Sixth Grade Students’ Information Processing Skill

 

A Unit in Keyboarding Skills for EDFD6313 Curriculum Development

 

Arkansas Tech University

 

May 24, 2000

 

 

 

 

By

 

 

Marianne (Mei-Hua) Pan

 

 

 

 


Philosophy and Comments

          This unit implements this philosophy for six grade students, it is essential that a scope and sequence of skills progression be delineated and followed precisely.

·       Proper ergonomics—appropriate table, chair, keyboard, monitor height, correct position of keyboard and mouse.

·       Proper body position, posture, wrists, elbows, and hand placement.

·       Following oral and written instructions while keyboarding.

·       Use of proper fingering (correct hand and finger) for all keys.

·       Distinction between and use of hardware and software (i.e. load, save, and print).

·       Care and trouble-shooting in handling of equipment and software.

·       Correct touch-keying skills

·       Keeping eyes on copy or computer monitor while keyboarding.

Attach the performance levels for assessing keyboarding skill development for record students’ progress.

Needs Assessment

Assessment of Legal Needs.

The goal for this unit was not taken from the curriculum frameworks of any particular state of Unite States, but would be common to goals in Taiwan.

Assessment of Subject Matter Needs.

          Keyboarding studies show that students are not building the basic information processing, particularly in typing skills.  Many students do no know how to type in correct keyboarding posture, use of proofreading and editing skills, and effective operating computer.

          The keyboarding studies show that basic skill of Information Processing, knowledge of computer input skills. My students need to know how to use the correct Touch Typing Techniques in order to operating computer and be able to edit their compositions.

          A pre-test of basic knowledge about these topics was developed and made as a part of this unit.  Students will take the post-test after completing this unit.  The test will be keyed to the objectives for the unit.  A copy of this test is included with the unit.  Data from the pre-test will be used to determine how much of the unit will be used and which parts, although lesson planning was done in a way to try to accommodate at least ten days of instructions.

Assessment of Socially Felt Needs.

          A questionnaire was developed to ask the parents what they thought their children needed to learn in school about keyboarding skills.  This questionnaire was distributed to all parents of sixth grade students at the beginning of the school year.  The data indicated that the parents had high expectations for their children in keyboarding skills for the coming year.


Goal(s) for the Unit

          As a learner and future worker of the Information Age, it is of paramount importance that young people have the necessary personal, academic, and professional keyboarding skills to be prepared for opportunities in today and tomorrow’s global society.  It is my goal to see that this cumulative process continues throughout a student’s school career by providing a safe, comfortable, and welcoming environment at grade six. 

          At this level, a typical student is already keyboarding at or beyond his/her handwriting speed.  It is my objective to insure that he/she proceeds with keyboarding skill development by reviewing and refining the skills currently in place and introducing keyboarding enhancements.  To achieve and retain keyboarding proficiency, each student needs regular access, practice, and application of these skills in an integrated variety of environment and curriculum areas.


First Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  Introduction To/Use/Care of Your Computer    



 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to identify the basic the basic parts of computer.

 

Computer hardware (disk drives, video display terminals, central processing units, printers, and keyboards)

 

 

 

 

30 minutes

 

Lecture: introduce the computer and how it work

 

 

 

Ask question before and after lecture.  Make sure students understand the concept of computer.

The students should be able to demonstrate the proper care and handling of equipment and software with no error.

Computer hardware (disk drives, video display terminals, central processing units, printers, and keyboards)

Software (keyboarding)

10 minutes lecture,

20 minutes practice.

Lecture:  introduce how to care the equipment and use the keyboarding software.

Practice: use the software.

Observe the students’ work.


Second Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  The AlphaNumeric Keyboard


 

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to understand and use of basic computer terminology.

 

Computer hardware (disk drives, video display terminals, central processing units, printers, and keyboards)

Software (keyboarding)

 

20 minutes

 

Demonstrate the basic computer terminology.

 

Asking question, and observe.

 

The students should be able to key the alphabetic keyboard by touch, using the correct finger of the correct hand. 

 

The same computer hardware software above.

The picture of correct posture and keyboard position.

 

 

 

40 minutes

 

Introduce the keyboard and correct finger the correct hand using the picture, and touch the keyboard.

 

Observe the students’ posture and finger.

         

Third Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  The AlphaNumeric Keyboard

 

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to master the alphabetic keyboard by touch, using the correct finger of the correct hand by touch “asdf & jkl;” basic finger position.

 

The same computer hardware software above.

 

 

 

 

60 minutes

 

Show the located of eight main keys.

Practice the correct posture and using the correct finger of the correct hand to type the “asdf & jkl;” by using software.

 

Observe the students’ posture and finger.

Test the correct percentage using keyboarding software and get the result.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Forth Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  The AlphaNumeric Keyboard

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to using the correct finger of the correct hand by touch all letters of the alphabet plus semicolon; colon; apostrophe; quotation mark; comma; period; the tab key; the shift keys; the diagonal; and the question mark with no error.

 

The same computer hardware software above.

 

 

 

 

60 minutes

 

Show the all letters of alphabet plus another keys.

Practice the correct posture and using the correct finger of the correct hand to type the all letters of the alphabet.

 

Observe the students’ posture and finger.

Test the correct percentage using keyboarding software and get the result.

 


Fifth Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  Key the Numeric Keyboard

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to key the numeric keyboard (numbers located above the alphabetic keys) by touch with no error.

 

The same computer hardware software above.

 

 

 

 

60 minutes

 

Show the located of numbers.

Practice the correct posture and using the correct finger of the correct hand to type the all letters of the alphabet.

 

Observe the students’ posture and finger.

Test the correct percentage using keyboarding software and get the result.

 


Sixth Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  Use the correct hand for special purpose keys

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to use the correct hand for special purpose keys to include: cursor (arrow) key; escape key; backspace key; caps lock key; control key; insert key; delete key; and the break key with no error.

 

The same computer hardware software above.

 

 

 

 

60 minutes

 

Show the located of special keys.

Practice the correct posture and using the correct finger of the correct hand to type the all special keys.

 

Observe the students’ posture and finger.

Test the correct percentage using keyboarding software and get the result.

 


Seventh Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  Development of proper technique.

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to key the symbol keys using the designated finger of the correct hand.

 

The same computer hardware software above.

 

 

 

 

60 minutes

 

Show the way to key the symbol keys using the designated finger of the correct hand.

Review and practice the position of all keyboard.

 

 

Observe the students’ posture and finger.

Test the correct percentage using keyboarding software and get the result.

 


Eighth Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  Development of composition skills and proofreading skills.

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to demonstrate the keyboarding skills, competence in introductory formatting skills, and to proofread documents competently with 80% accuracy.

 

The same computer hardware software above.

 

 

 

 

60 minutes

 

Show the way to compose at the keyboard and to proofread documents.

Practice the composition and proofreading skills

 

 

Observe the students’ skills.

 

 

 

 

 


Evaluation of Proofreading Skill Development

Proofreading refers to the process of reading handwritten, keyed, or printed material and marking the errors to indicate the corrections that are required. Proofreading is a skill that requires knowledge and concentration along with patience and attention to detail. Like learning any new skill, proofreading improves with practice.

Errors in keying text can be found by the spell checker contained within most word processing software packages. Encourage students to use this feature. However, students must be made aware that the spell checker does not find all errors. Examples of errors that automated spell checkers do not find include errors in capitalization, spacing, and context.

When students identify errors on paper, the errors should be marked with special symbols called proofreaders' marks. These symbols highlight the error made and indicate the correction that is to be made. Students should be aware of the different types of errors that can be made and should use standard proofreaders' marks to indicate a correction.

While preparing documents on a microcomputer or word processor, students should be encouraged to proofread their work both before and after it is output. Students may ask a peer to assist with the proofreading process. Using this strategy for proofreading, the work may be checked by the originator while a peer reads aloud from the original information source. Once the originator has corrected any identified errors, the peer may recheck the work for any further errors. A dictionary, thesaurus, and other relevant reference materials should be available for student use when proofreading copy.

As proofreading is a developmental skill, in the early learning stages, students may be allowed some proofreading errors and encouraged to strive to produce error-free work. With time and practice, students can be expected to produce accurate documents reflecting their skill achievement in accurate proofreading and information processing.

A checklist that students may use as a self-assessment tool for proofreading is included in the Tools for Assessment and Evaluation section of this document.


Nineth Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  The students can apply Middle Level keyboarding skills.

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to apply Middle Level Keyboarding skills to both personal and school situation whenever the opportunity to use a keyboard/computer arises.

 

The same computer hardware software above.

 

 

 

 

60 minutes

 

Practice the all keyboarding skills.

 

 

Observe the students’ posture and finger.

 

 


Tenth Day

 

GRADE LEVEL ____Sixth_____                                            SUBJECT ____Information Processing_____

 

GOAL:  The students able to type 20 wpm in writing with 90 % accuracy.

 

Objectives

Materials Needed

Time Needed

Activity

Evaluation of Student Learning

 

The students should be able to type 20 wpm in wring with 90 % accuracy.

 

The same computer hardware software above.

 

 

 

 

60 minutes

 

Post-test students in keyboarding skill.

 

 

Record the score and compare with pre-test.

 


Evaluation of Keyboarding Skills

The Importance of Good Keyboarding Technique

Proper technique forms the foundation for successful touch keyboarding and ultimately for the efficient use of the computer keyboard. The importance of demonstrating and continuously encouraging proper technique with the students cannot be over-stated. Technique should be observed and monitored whenever students are operating a computer keyboard, whether they are keying a document, composing, or practising keyboarding drills. It is extremely important to encourage and develop good keyboarding habits right from the start.

Developing and reinforcing good keyboarding habits continually throughout the keyboarding program is also essential. Whenever possible, daily practice and reinforcement of proper technique should take place. This process assists students to develop skills effectively. It is suggested that 10 minutes per day be devoted to developing keyboarding skills. A suggestion for organizing a keyboarding class is shown in Appendix B.

When students are introduced to touch keyboarding and learning the alphanumeric keyboard, students should be encouraged to focus on keeping eyes on copy and using the correct keystroking sequence. When learning touch keyboarding skills, teachers should clearly outline to students that errors will occur in learning any new skill. However, students should recognize and "feel" keystroking errors in the initial learning stages but should not be concerned with correcting any errors at this time. Keystroking errors diminish with confidence, concentration, and meaningful practice.

Error Correction

Once students have learned key location and have developed security in touch keyboarding the alphanumeric keyboard, they should progress to developing the skills of error recognition and error correction. The development of the skill of immediate error recognition and correction are important to the quality of the final product. As microcomputers allow for ease in immediate correcting of keyboarding errors, error correction during a session should be allowed. It is recommended that students make corrections during a session recognizing that this is the way they will use their keyboarding skills for personal or other endeavours.

Keyboarding Skill Development

As students are individuals possessing individual strengths and abilities, it is suggested that students be evaluated on their individual achievements in the skill of touch keyboarding. Anecdotal records, checklists, and rating scales are valuable data-collecting instruments to record student progress in the development and use of touch keyboarding skills.

During the initial learning phase on the alphanumeric keyboard, data should only be collected on student keyboarding technique. Therefore, it is suggested that formal assessment of keyboarding occur on a weekly basis while learning the alphanumeric keyboard. The Criteria for Rating Keyboarding Technique (page 21) and Student Self-Assessment Technique Rating Scale (page 25) are provided in the Templates for Assessment and Evaluation section of this guide, for the purposes of collecting this information.

Informal evaluation of touch keyboarding during each class provides important feedback on skill improvement. Students will be interested in tracking their personal progress.

Straight-Copy Timed Writings

Historically, straight-copy timed writings (timings) have been a major tool in determining the keyboarding progress of students. Because microcomputers allow for easy and immediate correction of errors during the input phase, and because this is the way students will apply their keyboarding skills, it is suggested that error correction during timed writings be allowed and encouraged. Since the skill of immediate error recognition and correction is important, students should make corrections during a timed writing session, not after the designated time period has elapsed.

Students may be given short timed-writing intervals to encourage the development of keyboarding skills. Two or more attempts at keying the same copy within a predetermined time interval may be given to students to assist in determining student progress in keyboarding. Teachers may wish to administer timed intervals beginning with 10 seconds and progressing to the maximum of three minutes.

To build keyboarding stroking rate, multiple attempts at the same copy should be given. The goal of extra attempts is to improve from previous efforts.

When recording timed-writing keyboarding rates of the three-minute timed interval, students may be given the opportunity to attempt the same copy twice. The greater of the rates from the two attempts would be recorded as the student's keyboarding rate achievement.

Calculating Keyboarding Rates

A keyboarding rate is determined by taking the total number of keyed words divided by the predetermined time interval (in minutes). A word in keyboarding is defined as any five keystrokes.

If an error is not corrected at the conclusion of the timed writing, one word per uncorrected error may be deducted from the student's keyboarding rate. It is recommended that the product of such a timed writing be designated as "correct words a minute," abbreviated CWAM.

words - number of errors = CWAM

time (minutes)

Teachers are reminded that students should be evaluated on their individual achievements in the skill of touch keyboarding. In order for touch keyboarding to be a useful skill, students should strive to exceed a rate of 25 CWAM. When touch keyboarding skills are used throughout the school year, they improve with practice. Information collected on keyboarding rates should be collected regularly and compared in order to determine improvements in keyboarding skill.

Timed-writing rates and other information may be recorded in a timed-writing log such as the one shown on page 28. This log can be used to chart a student's progress in keyboarding speed development and can be placed in a student's portfolio of work. Timed-writing information may be recorded by both the student and teacher.

The information collected in the timed-writing log, along with other information collected on student progress in keyboarding achievement, can be used in making an evaluation of keyboarding skill improvement.